容器云技术

2020-06-02 16:05:45来源:博客园 阅读 ()

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容器云技术

容器云技术

Docker引擎的安装

准备两台虚拟机,一台为docker主节点,一台为docker客户端,安装CentOS7.5_1804系统

基础环境配置

网卡配置(master节点)

修改docker主节点主机名

# hostnamectl set-hostname master

配置网卡

# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ens33
TYPE=Ethernet
PROXY_METHOD=none
BROWSER_ONLY=no
BOOTPROTO=static
DEFROUTE=yes
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6INIT=yes
IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
NAME=ens33
UUID=099334fe-751c-4dc4-b062-d421640ceb2e
DEVICE=ens33
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=192.168.7.10
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=192.168.7.2
DNS1=114.114.114.114

网卡配置(slave节点)

修改docker客户端主机名

# hostnamectl set-hostname slave

配置网卡

# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ens33
iTYPE=Ethernet
PROXY_METHOD=none
BROWSER_ONLY=no
BOOTPROTO=static
DEFROUTE=yes
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6INIT=yes
IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
NAME=ens33
UUID=53bbedb7-248e-4110-bd80-82ca6371f016
DEVICE=ens33
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=192.168.7.20
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=192.168.7.2
DNS1=114.114.114.114

配置YUM源(两个节点)

将提供的压缩包Docker.tar.gz上传至/root目录并解压

# tar -zxvf Docker.tar.gz

配置本地YUM源

# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/local.repo
[kubernetes]
name=kubernetes
baseurl=file:///root/Docker
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1

升级系统内核(两个节点)

Docker CE支持64位版本CentOS 7,并且要求内核版本不低于3.10

# yum -y upgrade

配置防火墙(两个节点)

配置防火墙及SELinux

# systemctl stop firewalld && systemctl disable firewalld
Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/firewalld.service.
Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/dbus-org.fedoraproject.FirewallD1.service.

# iptables -t filter -F

# iptables -t filter -X

# sed -i 's/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config

# reboot

开启路由转发(两个节点)

# vi /etc/sysctl.conf

 

net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables=1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables=1

# modprobe br_netfilter

# sysctl -p
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1

Docker引擎安装

安装依赖包(两个节点)

yum-utils提供了yum-config-manager的依赖包,device-mapper-persistent-data和lvm2are需要devicemapper存储驱动

# yum install -y yum-utils device-mapper-persistent-data

安装docker-ce(两个节点)

Docker CE是免费的Docker产品的新名称,Docker CE包含了完整的Docker平台,非常适合开发人员和运维团队构建容器APP

安装指定版本的Docker CE

# yum install -y docker-ce-18.09.6 docker-ce-cli-18.09.6 containerd.io

启动Docker(两个节点)

启动Docker并设置开机自启

# systemctl daemon-reload

# systemctl restart docker

# systemctl enable docker
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/docker.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/docker.service.

查看docker的系统信息

# docker info
Containers: 0
 Running: 0
 Paused: 0
 Stopped: 0
Images: 0
Server Version: 18.09.6
Storage Driver: overlay2

Docker仓库的使用

构建私有仓库

官方的Docker Hub是一个用于管理公共镜像的仓库,用户可以在上面找到需要的镜像,也可以把私有镜像推送上去。官方在Docker Hub上提供了Registry的镜像,可以直接使用该Registry镜像来构建一个容器,搭建私有仓库服务

运行Registry(master节点)

Registry镜像运行并生成一个容器

# ./image.sh

# docker run -d -v /opt/registry:/var/lib/registry -p 5000:5000 --restart=always --name registry registry:latest
dff76b9fb042ff1ea15741a50dc81e84d7afad4cc057c79bc16e370d2ce13c2a

 

Registry服务默认会将上传的镜像保存在容器的/var/lib/registry中,将主机的/opt/registry目录挂载到该目录,可实现将镜像保存到主机的/opt/registry目录

查看运行情况(master节点)

查看容器运行情况

# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED              STATUS              PORTS                    NAMES
dff76b9fb042        registry:latest     "/entrypoint.sh /etc…"   About a minute ago   Up About a minute   0.0.0.0:5000->5000/tcp   registry

查看状态

Registry容器启动后,打开浏览器输入地址http://192.168.7.10:5000/v2/

上传镜像(master节点)

配置私有仓库

# vi /etc/docker/daemon.json {
        "insecure-registries":["192.168.7.10:5000"]
} # systemctl restart docker 标记镜像 # docker tag centos:latest 192.168.7.10:5000/centos:latest 使用上传标记的镜像 # docker push 192.168.7.10:5000/centos:latest
The push refers to repository [192.168.7.10:5000/centos]
9e607bb861a7: Pushed
latest: digest: sha256:6ab380c5a5acf71c1b6660d645d2cd79cc8ce91b38e0352cbf9561e050427baf size: 529 查看仓库中的镜像 # curl -L http://192.168.7.10:5000/v2/_catalog
{"repositories":["centos"]}

拉取镜像(slave节点)

配置私有仓库地址

# vi /etc/docker/daemon.json
{
        "insecure-registries":["192.168.7.10:5000"]
}

# systemctl restart docker

拉取镜像并查看结果

# docker pull 192.168.7.10:5000/centos:latest
latest: Pulling from centos
729ec3a6ada3: Pull complete
Digest: sha256:6ab380c5a5acf71c1b6660d645d2cd79cc8ce91b38e0352cbf9561e050427baf
Status: Downloaded newer image for 192.168.7.10:5000/centos:latest

# docker images
REPOSITORY                 TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
192.168.7.10:5000/centos   latest              0f3e07c0138f        7 months ago        220MB

Docker镜像和容器的使用 

在docker主节点master主机上操作

镜像的基本管理和使用

镜像有多种生成方法:

(1)可以从无到有开始创建镜像

(2)可以下载并使用别人创建好的现成的镜像

(3)可以在现有镜像上创建新的镜像

可以将镜像的内容和创建步骤描述在一个文本文件中,这个文件被称作Dockerfile,通过执行docker build <docker-file>命令可以构建出Docker镜像

查看镜像列表

列出本地主机上的镜像

# ./image.sh

# docker images
REPOSITORY                 TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
httpd                      latest              d3017f59d5e2        7 months ago        165MB
busybox                    latest              020584afccce        7 months ago        1.22MB
nginx                      latest              540a289bab6c        7 months ago        126MB
redis                      alpine              6f63d037b592        7 months ago        29.3MB
python                     3.7-alpine          b11d2a09763f        7 months ago        98.8MB
<none>                     <none>              4cda95efb0e4        7 months ago        80.6MB
192.168.7.10:5000/centos   latest              0f3e07c0138f        7 months ago        220MB
centos                     latest              0f3e07c0138f        7 months ago        220MB
registry                   latest              f32a97de94e1        14 months ago       25.8MB
swarm                      latest              ff454b4a0e84        24 months ago       12.7MB
httpd                      2.2.32              c51e86ea30d1        2 years ago         171MB
httpd                      2.2.31              c8a7fb36e3ab        3 years ago         170MB

REPOSITORY:表示镜像的仓库源

TAG:镜像的标签

IMAGE ID:镜像ID

CREATED:镜像创建时间

SIZE:镜像大小

运行容器

同一仓库源可以有多个TAG,代表这个仓库源的不同个版本

# docker run -i -t -d httpd:2.2.31 /bin/bash
be31c7adf30f88fc5d6c649311a5640601714483e8b9ba6f8db853c73fc11638

-i:交互式操作

-t:终端

-d:后台运行

httpd:2.2.31:镜像名,使用https:2.2.31镜像为基础来启动容器

/bin/bash:容器交互式Shell

如果不指定镜像的版本标签,则默认使用latest标签的镜像

获取镜像

当本地主机上使用一个不存在的镜像时,Docker会自动下载这个镜像。如果需要预先下载这个镜像,可以使用docker pull命令来下载

格式

# docker pull [OPTIONS] NAME[:TAG|@DIGEST]

OPTIONS说明:

-a:拉取所有tagged镜像。

--disable-content-trust:忽略镜像的校验,默认开启

查找镜像

查找镜像一般有两种方式,可以通过Docker Hub(https://hub.docker.com/)网站来搜索镜像,也可以使用docker search命令来搜索镜像

格式

# docker search [OPTIONS] TERM

OPTIONS说明:

--automated:只列出automated build类型的镜像

--no-trunc:显示完整的镜像描述

--filter=stars:列出收藏数不小于指定值的镜像

搜索httpd寻找适合的镜像

# docker search --filter=stars=10 java
NAME                              DESCRIPTION                                     STARS               OFFICIAL            AUTOMATED
node                              Node.js is a JavaScript-based platform for s…   8863                [OK]               
tomcat                            Apache Tomcat is an open source implementati…   2739                [OK]               
openjdk                           OpenJDK is an open-source implementation of …   2265                [OK]               
java                              Java is a concurrent, class-based, and objec…   1976                [OK]               
ghost                             Ghost is a free and open source blogging pla…   1188                [OK]               
couchdb                           CouchDB is a database that uses JSON for doc…   347                 [OK]               
jetty                             Jetty provides a Web server and javax.servle…   336                 [OK]               
groovy                            Apache Groovy is a multi-faceted language fo…   92                  [OK]               
lwieske/java-8                    Oracle Java 8 Container - Full + Slim - Base…   46                                      [OK]
nimmis/java-centos                This is docker images of CentOS 7 with diffe…   42                                      [OK]
fabric8/java-jboss-openjdk8-jdk   Fabric8 Java Base Image (JBoss, OpenJDK 8)      28                                      [OK]
cloudbees/java-build-tools        Docker image with commonly used tools to bui…   15                                      [OK]
frekele/java                      docker run --rm --name java frekele/java        12                                      [OK]

NAME:镜像仓库源的名称

DESCRIPTION:镜像的描述

OFFICIAL:是否是Docker官方发布

stars:类似GitHub里面的star,表示点赞、喜欢的意思

AUTOMATED:自动构建

删除镜像

格式

# docker rmi [OPTIONS] IMAGE [IMAGE...]

OPTIONS说明:

-f:强制删除

--no-prune:不移除该镜像的过程镜像,默认移除

强制删除本地镜像busybox

# docker rmi -f busybox:latest
Untagged: busybox:latest
Deleted: sha256:020584afccce44678ec82676db80f68d50ea5c766b6e9d9601f7b5fc86dfb96d
Deleted: sha256:1da8e4c8d30765bea127dc2f11a17bc723b59480f4ab5292edb00eb8eb1d96b1

容器的基本管理和使用

容器是一种轻量级的、可移植的、自包含的软件打包技术,使应用程序几乎可以在任何地方以相同的方式运行。容器由应用程序本身和依赖两部分组成

运行容器

运行第一个容器

# docker run -it --rm -d -p 80:80 nginx:latest
d7ab2c1aa4511f5ffc76a9bba3ab736fb9817793c6bec5af53e1cfddfb0904cd

-i:交互式操作

-t:终端

-rm:容器退出后随之将其删除,可以避免浪费空间

-p:端口映射

-d:容器在后台运行

过程

简单描述

(1)下载Nginx镜像

(2)启动容器,并将容器的80端口映射到宿主机的80端口

使用docker run来创建容器

(1)检查本地是否存在指定的镜像,不存在就从公有仓库下载

(2)利用镜像创建并启动一个容器

(3)分配一个文件系统,并在只读的镜像层外面挂载一层可读写层

(4)从宿主主机配置的网桥接口中桥接一个虚拟接口到容器中去

(5)从地址池配置一个IP地址给容器

(6)执行用户指定的应用程序

验证容器是否正常工作

在浏览器输入地址 http://192.168.7.10

 

 

启动容器

格式

# docker start [CONTAINER ID]

启动所有的docker容器

# docker start $(docker ps -aq)
d7ab2c1aa451
be31c7adf30f
dff76b9fb042

操作容器

列出运行中的容器

# docker ps 或者 # docker container ls
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                    NAMES
d7ab2c1aa451        nginx:latest        "nginx -g 'daemon of…"   8 minutes ago       Up 8 minutes        0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp       distracted_hoover
be31c7adf30f        httpd:2.2.31        "/bin/bash"              26 minutes ago      Up 26 minutes       80/tcp                   priceless_hellman
dff76b9fb042        registry:latest     "/entrypoint.sh /etc…"   21 hours ago        Up 44 minutes       0.0.0.0:5000->5000/tcp   registry

列出所有容器

# docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                    NAMES
d7ab2c1aa451        nginx:latest        "nginx -g 'daemon of…"   9 minutes ago       Up 9 minutes        0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp       distracted_hoover
be31c7adf30f        httpd:2.2.31        "/bin/bash"              27 minutes ago      Up 27 minutes       80/tcp                   priceless_hellman
dff76b9fb042        registry:latest     "/entrypoint.sh /etc…"   21 hours ago        Up About an hour    0.0.0.0:5000->5000/tcp   registry

查看具体容器的信息

# docker inspect [container ID or NAMES]

查看容器的使用资源状况

# docker stats [container ID or NAMES]

查看容器日志

# docker logs [OPTIONS] [container ID or NAMES]

OPTIONS说明:

--details:显示更多的信息

-f,--follow:跟踪实时日志

--sincestring:显示自某个timestamp之后的日志,或相对时

--tailstring:从日志末尾显示多少行日志,默认是all

-t,--timestamps:显示时间戳

--until string:显示自某个timestamp之前的日志,或相对时间

进入容器

格式

# docker exec -it [CONTAINER ID] bash

进入容器后,输入exit或者按Crtl+C键即可退出容器

终止容器

删除终止状态的容器

 

# docker rm [CONTAINER ID]

删除所有处于终止状态的容器

# docker container prune

删除未被使用的数据卷

# docker volume prune

删除运行中的容器

# docker rm -f [CONTAINER ID]

批量停止所有的容器

# docker stop $(docker ps -aq)

批量删除所有的容器

 

# docker rm $(docker ps -aq)

终止容器进程,容器进入终止状态

# docker container stop [CONTAINER ID]

导入/导出容器

将容器快照导出为本地文件

格式

# docker export [CONTAINER ID] > [tar file]

# docker export d7ab2c1aa451 > nginx.tar
# ll
总用量 1080192
-rw-------. 1 root root      1569 5月  28 02:19 anaconda-ks.cfg
drwxr-xr-x. 4 root root        34 10月 31 2019 Docker
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 977776539 11月  4 2019 Docker.tar.gz
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root      4096 10月 31 2019 images
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       498 10月 31 2019 image.sh
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root        40 11月  4 2019 jdk
-rw-r--r--  1 root root 128325632 5月  28 17:30 nginx.tar

把容器快照文件再导入为镜像

格式

# cat [tar file] | docker import - [name:tag]

# cat nginx.tar | docker import - nginx:test
sha256:743846df0ce06109d801cb4118e9e4d3082243d6323dbaa6efdcda74f4c000bf

# docker images
REPOSITORY                 TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
nginx                      test                743846df0ce0        17 seconds ago      125MB
httpd                      latest              d3017f59d5e2        7 months ago        165MB
nginx                      latest              540a289bab6c        7 months ago        126MB
redis                      alpine              6f63d037b592        7 months ago        29.3MB
python                     3.7-alpine          b11d2a09763f        7 months ago        98.8MB
<none>                     <none>              4cda95efb0e4        7 months ago        80.6MB
centos                     latest              0f3e07c0138f        7 months ago        220MB
192.168.7.10:5000/centos   latest              0f3e07c0138f        7 months ago        220MB
registry                   latest              f32a97de94e1        14 months ago       25.8MB
swarm                      latest              ff454b4a0e84        24 months ago       12.7MB
httpd                      2.2.32              c51e86ea30d1        2 years ago         171MB
httpd                      2.2.31              c8a7fb36e3ab        3 years ago         170MB

使用docker import命令导入一个容器快照到本地镜像库时,将丢弃所有的历史记录和元数据信息,即仅保存容器当时的快照状态

构建自定义镜像

构建自定义镜像主要有两种方式:docker commit和Dockerfile

 docker commit是在以往版本控制系统里提交变更,然后进行变更的提交  Dockerfile是由一系列命令和参数构成的脚本,这些命令应用于基础镜像并最终创建一个新的镜像

docker commit

从容器创建一个新的镜像

格式

# docker commit [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]

OPTIONS说明:

-a:提交的镜像作者

-c:使用Dockerfile指令来创建镜像

-m:提交时的说明文字

-p:在commit时,将容器暂停

查看已有的容器 # docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                    NAMES
d7ab2c1aa451        nginx:latest        "nginx -g 'daemon of…"   32 minutes ago      Up 32 minutes       0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp       distracted_hoover
be31c7adf30f        httpd:2.2.31        "/bin/bash"              About an hour ago   Up About an hour    80/tcp                   priceless_hellman
dff76b9fb042        registry:latest     "/entrypoint.sh /etc…"   22 hours ago        Up About an hour    0.0.0.0:5000->5000/tcp   registry
将容器保存为新的镜像,并添加提交人信息和说明信息 # docker commit -a "xiandian" -m "nginx-test" d7ab2c1aa451 nginx:v1
sha256:0a18e29db3b007302cd0e0011b4e34a756ef44ce4939d51e599f986204ce1f34
构建完成后查看构建结果 # docker images
REPOSITORY                 TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
nginx                      v1                  0a18e29db3b0        38 seconds ago      126MB

Dockerfile

Dockerfile是一个文本文档,其中包含了组合映像的命令,可以使用在命令行中调用任何命令。Docker通过读取Dockerfile中的指令自动生成映像

知识点

格式

# docker build -f /path/to/a/Dockerfile

Dockerfile一般分为4部分:基础镜像信息、维护者信息、镜像操作指令和容器启动时执行指令,“#”为Dockerfile中的注释

Dockerfile主要指令:

FROM:指定基础镜像,必须为第一个命令

MAINTAINER:维护者信息

RUN:构建镜像时执行的命令

ADD:将本地文件添加到容器中,tar类型文件会自动解压(网络压缩资源不会被解压),可以访问网络资源,类似wget

COPY:功能类似ADD,但是是不会自动解压文件,也不能访问网络资源

CMD:构建容器后调用,也就是在容器启动时才进行调用

ENTRYPOINT:配置容器,使其可执行化。配合CMD可省去“application”,只使用参数

LABEL:用于为镜像添加元数据

ENV:设置环境变量

EXPOSE:指定与外界交互的端口

VOLUME:用于指定持久化目录

WORKDIR:工作目录,类似于cd命令

USER:指定运行容器时的用户名或UID,后续的RUN也会使用指定用户。使用USER指定用户时,可以使用用户名、UID或GID,或是两者的组合。当服务不需要管理员权限时,可通过该命令指定运行用户

ARG:用于指定传递给构建运行时的变量

ONBUILD:用于设置镜像触发器

构建准备

centos:latest为基础镜像,安装jdk1.8并构建新的镜像centos-jdk

新建文件夹用于存放JDK安装包和Dockerfile文件

# mkdir centos-jdk

# mv jdk-8u141-linux-x64.tar.gz ./centos-jdk/

# cd centos-jdk/

编写Dockerfile

# vi Dockerfile

内容
# CentOS with JDK 8
# Author kei
FROM centos                              ##指定基础镜像
MAINTAINER kei                         ##指定作者
RUN mkdir /usr/local/java            ##新建文件夹用于存放jdk文件
ADD jdk-8u141-linux-x64.tar.gz /usr/local/java                      ##将JDK文件复制到镜像内并自动解压
RUN ln -s /usr/local/java/jdk1.8.0_141 /usr/local/java/jdk      ##创建软链接
ENV JAVA_HOME /usr/local/java/jdk                                     ##设置环境变量
ENV JRE_HOME ${JAVA_HOME}/jre
ENV CLASSPATH .:${JAVA_HOME}/lib:${JRE_HOME}/lib
ENV PATH ${JAVA_HOME}/bin:$PATH

构建新镜像 

# docker build -t="centos-jdk" .

Sending build context to Docker daemon  185.5MB

Step 1/9 : FROM centos

 ---> 0f3e07c0138f

Step 2/9 : MAINTAINER dockerzlnewbie

 ---> Running in 1a6a5c210531

Removing intermediate container 1a6a5c210531

 ---> 286d78e0b9bf

Step 3/9 : RUN mkdir /usr/local/java

 ---> Running in 2dbbac61b2cf

Removing intermediate container 2dbbac61b2cf

 ---> 369567834d80

Step 4/9 : ADD jdk-8u141-linux-x64.tar.gz /usr/local/java/

 ---> 8fb102032ae2

Step 5/9 : RUN ln -s /usr/local/java/jdk1.8.0_141 /usr/local/java/jdk

 ---> Running in d8301e932f7c

Removing intermediate container d8301e932f7c

 ---> 7c82ee6703c5

Step 6/9 : ENV JAVA_HOME /usr/local/java/jdk

 ---> Running in d8159a32efae

Removing intermediate container d8159a32efae

 ---> d270abf08fa2

Step 7/9 : ENV JRE_HOME ${JAVA_HOME}/jre

 ---> Running in 5206ba2ec963

Removing intermediate container 5206ba2ec963

 ---> a52dc52bae76

Step 8/9 : ENV CLASSPATH .:${JAVA_HOME}/lib:${JRE_HOME}/lib

 ---> Running in 41fbd969bd90

Removing intermediate container 41fbd969bd90

 ---> ff44f5f90877

Step 9/9 : ENV PATH ${JAVA_HOME}/bin:$PATH

 ---> Running in 7affe7505c82

Removing intermediate container 7affe7505c82

 ---> bdf402785277

Successfully built bdf402785277

Successfully tagged centos-jdk:latest

查看构建的新镜像

# docker images

REPOSITORY     TAG         IMAGE ID      CREATED       SIZE

centos-jdk         latest         bdf402785277   11 minutes ago    596MB

使用新构建的镜像运行容器验证JDK是否安装成功

# docker run -it centos-jdk /bin/bash

 java -version

java version "1.8.0_141"

Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_141-b15)

Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.141-b15, mixed mode)

Docker容器编排

准备两台虚拟机,一台为swarm集群Master节点master,一台为swarm集群Node节点node,所有节点已配置好主机名和网卡,并安装好docker-ce

容器编排工具提供了有用且功能强大的解决方案,用于跨多个主机协调创建、管理和更新多个容器

Swarm是Docker自己的编排工具,现在与Docker Engine完全集成,并使用标准API和网络

部署Swarm集群

配置主机映射(两个节点)

修改/etc/hosts文件配置主机映射

# vi /etc/hosts

127.0.0.1   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4

::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6

192.168.7.10 master

192.168.7.20 node

配置时间同步

安装服务(两个节点)

安装chrony服务

# yum install -y chrony

master节点

修改/etc/chrony.conf文件,注释默认NTP服务器,指定上游公共NTP服务器,并允许其他节点同步时间

# sed -i 's/^server/#&/' /etc/chrony.conf

# vi /etc/chrony.conf

local stratum 10

server master iburst

allow all

重启chronyd服务并设为开机启动,开启网络时间同步功能

# systemctl enable chronyd && systemctl restart chronyd

 

# timedatectl set-ntp true

node节点

修改/etc/chrony.conf文件,指定内网 Master节点为上游NTP服务器

# sed -i 's/^server/#&/' /etc/chrony.conf

# echo server 192.168.7.10 iburst >> /etc/chrony.conf

 

重启服务并设为开机启动

# systemctl enable chronyd && systemctl restart chronyd

查询同步(两个节点)

# chronyc sources

210 Number of sources = 1

MS Name/IP address            Stratum Poll Reach LastRx Last sample

==================================================================

^* master                       10   6    77    7   +13ns[-2644ns] +/-   13us

配置Docker API(两个节点)

开启docker API

# vi /lib/systemd/system/docker.service

   ExecStart=/usr/bin/dockerd -H fd:// --containerd=/run/containerd/containerd.sock

修改为

   ExecStart=/usr/bin/dockerd -H tcp://0.0.0.0:2375 -H unix:///var/run/docker.sock

# systemctl daemon-reload

# systemctl restart docker

# ./image.sh

初始化集群(master节点)

创建swarm集群

# docker swarm init --advertise-addr 192.168.7.10

Swarm initialized: current node (jit2j1itocmsynhecj905vfwp) is now a manager.

 

To add a worker to this swarm, run the following command:

 

    docker swarm join --token SWMTKN-1-2oyrpgkp41z40zg0z6l0yppv6420vz18rr171kqv0mfsbiufii-c3ficc1qh782wo567uav16n3n 192.168.7.10:2377

 

To add a manager to this swarm, run 'docker swarm join-token manager' and follow the instructions.

 

初始化命令中“--advertise-addr”选项表示管理节点公布它的IP是多少。其它节点必须能通过这个IP找到管理节点

输出结果中包含3个步骤:

(1)Swarm创建成功,swarm-manager成为manager node

(2)添加worker node需要执行的命令

(3)添加manager node需要执行的命令   

node节点加入集群(node节点)

复制前面的docker swarm join命令,执行以加入Swarm集群

# docker swarm join --token SWMTKN-1-2oyrpgkp41z40zg0z6l0yppv6420vz18rr171kqv0mfsbiufii-c3ficc1qh782wo567uav16n3n 192.168.7.10:2377

This node joined a swarm as a worker.

验证集群(master节点) 

查看各节点状态

# docker node ls

ID HOSTNAME STATUS AVAILABILITY  MANAGER STATUS  ENGINE VERSION

jit2j1itocmsynhecj905vfwp *     master    Ready    Active    Leader    18.09.6

8mww97xnbfxfrbzqndplxv3vi       node   Ready    Active             18.09.6

安装portainer(master节点)

Portainer是Docker的图形化管理工具,提供状态显示面板、应用模板快速部署、容器镜像网络数据卷的基本操作(包括上传和下载镜像、创建容器等操作)、事件日志显示、容器控制台操作、Swarm集群和服务等集中管理和操作、登录用户管理和控制等功能

安装

# docker volume create portainer_data

portainer_data  

# docker service create --name portainer --publish 9000:9000 --replicas=1 --constraint 'node.role == manager' --mount type=bind,src=//var/run/docker.sock,dst=/var/run/docker.sock --mount type=volume,src=portainer_data,dst=/data portainer/portainer -H unix:///var/run/docker.sock

nfgx3xci88rdcdka9j9cowv8g

overall progress: 1 out of 1 tasks

1/1: running  

verify: Service converged

登录portainer

打开浏览器,输入地址http://master_IP:9000访问Portainer主页  首次登录时需设置用户名和密码,然后输入设置的用户名和密码进行登录,进入Swarm控制台

运行service

运行(master节点)

部署一个运行httpd镜像的Service

# docker service create --name web_server httpd

查看当前Swarm中的Service

# docker service ls

ID             NAME      MODE      REPLICAS     IMAGE         PORTS

2g18082sfqa9    web_server   replicated    1/1         httpd:latest

REPLICAS显示当前副本信息,1/1意思是web_server这个Service期望的容器副本数量为1,目前已经启动的副本数量为1,即当前Service已经部署完成

查看Service每个副本的状态

# docker service ps web_server

ID        NAME IMAGE NODE DESIRED STATE CURRENT STATE ERROR PORTS

4vtrynwddd7m  web_server.1  httpd:latest  node   Running   Running 27 minutes ago

Service唯一的副本被分派到node,当前的状态是Running

service伸缩(master节点)

副本数增加到5

# docker service scale web_server=5

web_server scaled to 5

overall progress: 5 out of 5 tasks

1/5: running  

2/5: running  

3/5: running  

4/5: running  

5/5: running  

verify: Service converged

查看副本的详细信息

# docker service ls

ID           NAME      MODE      REPLICAS   IMAGE      PORTS

2g18082sfqa9  web_server   replicated    5/5          httpd:latest

# docker service ps web_server

ID         NAME        IMAGE        NODE        DESIRED STATE    CURRENT STATE        ERROR        PORTS

4vtrynwddd7m        web_server.1        httpd:latest        node                Running             Running 36 minutes ago

n3iscmvv9fh5        web_server.2        httpd:latest        master              Running             Running about a minute ago

mur6cc8k6x7e        web_server.3        httpd:latest        node                Running             Running 3 minutes ago

rx52najc1txw        web_server.4        httpd:latest        master              Running             Running about a minute ago

jl0xjv427goz        web_server.5        httpd:latest        node                Running             Running 3 minutes ago

减少副本数

# docker service scale web_server=2

web_server scaled to 2

overall progress: 2 out of 2 tasks

1/2: running  

2/2: running  

verify: Service converged

# docker service ps web_server

ID                  NAME                IMAGE               NODE                DESIRED STATE       CURRENT STATE            ERROR               PORTS

4vtrynwddd7m        web_server.1        httpd:latest        node                Running             Running 40 minutes ago                      

n3iscmvv9fh5        web_server.2        httpd:latest        master              Running             Running 5 minutes ago

访问service(master节点)

查看容器的网络配置

# docker ps

CONTAINER  ID  IMAGE   COMMAND  CREATED  STATUS  PORTS  NAMES

cde0d3489429    httpd:latest         "httpd-foreground"    9 minutes ago    Up 9 minutes    80/tcp       web_server.2.n3iscmvv9fh590fx452ezu9hu

Service暴露到外部

# docker service update --publish-add 8080:80 web_server

web_server

overall progress: 2 out of 2 tasks

1/2: running  

2/2: running  

verify: Service converged

service存储数据(master节点)

volume NFS共享存储模式:管理节点宿主同步到工作节点宿主,工作节点宿主同步到容器

安装NFS服务端、配置NFS主配置文件、添加权限并启动

# yum install -y nfs-utils

添加目录让相应网段可以访问并添加读写权限

# vi /etc/exports

/root/share 192.168.7.10/24(rw,async,insecure,anonuid=1000,anongid=1000,no_root_squash)

 

创建共享目录,添加权限

# mkdir -p /root/share

# chmod 777 /root/share

 

/root/share为共享目录,生效配置

# exportfs -rv

exporting 192.168.7.10/24:/root/share

开启RPC服务并设置开机自启

# systemctl start rpcbind

# systemctl enable rpcbind

启动NFS服务并设置开机自启

# systemctl start nfs

# systemctl enable nfs

查看NFS是否挂载成功

# cat /var/lib/nfs/etab

/root/share     192.168.7.10/24(rw,async,wdelay,hide,nocrossmnt,insecure,no_root_squash,no_all_squash,no_subtree_check,secure_locks,acl,no_pnfs,anonuid=1000,anongid=1000,sec=sys,rw,insecure,no_root_squash,no_all_squash)

安装NFS客户端并启动服务(node节点)

# yum install nfs-utils -y

# systemctl start rpcbind

# systemctl enable rpcbind

# systemctl start nfs

# systemctl enable nfs

创建docker volume(两个节点)

# docker volume create --driver local --opt type=nfs --opt o=addr=10.18.4.39,rw --opt device=:/root/share foo33

查看volume。

# docker volume ls

DRIVER              VOLUME NAME

local               foo33

local               nfs-test

local               portainer_data

查看volume详细信息

# docker volume inspect foo33

[

    {

        "CreatedAt": "2020-5-31T07:36:47Z",

        "Driver": "local",

        "Labels": {},

        "Mountpoint": "/var/lib/docker/volumes/foo33/_data",

        "Name": "foo33",

        "Options": {

            "device": ":/root/share",

            "o": "addr=192.168.7.10,rw",

            "type": "nfs"

        },

        "Scope": "local"

    }

]

创建并发布服务(master节点)

# docker service create --name test-nginx-nfs --publish 80:80 --mount type=volume,source=foo33,destination=/app/share --replicas 3 nginx

otp60kfc3br7fz5tw4fymhtcy

overall progress: 3 out of 3 tasks

1/3: running  

2/3: running  

3/3: running  

verify: Service converged

查看服务分布的节点。

# docker service ps test-nginx-nfs

ID  NAME  IMAGE  NODE  DESIRED S TATE CURRENT STATE ERROR PORTS

z661rc7h8rrn test-nginx-nfs.1 nginx:latest  node   Running  Running about a minute ago  

j2b9clk37kuc test-nginx-nfs.2 nginx:latest  node   Running  Running about a minute ago  

nqduca4andz0 test-nginx-nfs.3 nginx:latest  master  Running Running about a minute ago

生成一个index.html文件

# cd /root/share/

# touch index.html

# ll

total 0

-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Oct 31 07:44 index.html

查看宿主机目录挂载情况

# docker volume inspect foo33

[

    {

        "CreatedAt": "2020-5-31T07:44:49Z",

        "Driver": "local",

        "Labels": {},

        "Mountpoint": "/var/lib/docker/volumes/foo33/_data",

        "Name": "foo33",

        "Options": {

            "device": ":/root/share",

            "o": "addr=192.168.7.10,rw",

            "type": "nfs"

        },

        "Scope": "local"

    }

]

# ls /var/lib/docker/volumes/foo33/_data

index.html

查看容器目录

# docker ps

CONTAINER ID    IMAGE        COMMAND         CREATED       STATUS       PORTS        NAMES

a1bce967830e    nginx:latest    "nginx -g 'daemon of…"  6 minutes ago    Up 6 minutes    80/tcp       test-nginx-nfs.3.nqduca4andz0nsxus11nwd8qt

# docker exec -it a1bce967830e bash

root@a1bce967830e:/# ls app/share/

index.html

调度节点(master节点)

默认配置下Master也是worker node,所以Master上也运行了副本。如果不希望在Master上运行Service

# docker node update --availability drain master

master

查看各节点现在的状态

# docker node ls

ID  HOSTNAME STATUS AVAILABILITY MANAGER STATUS ENGINE VERSION

jit2j1itocmsynhecj905vfwp *     master    Ready    Drain     Leader    18.09.6

8mww97xnbfxfrbzqndplxv3vi    node      Ready    Active              18.09.6

# docker service ps test-nginx-nfs

ID  NAME   IMAGE  NODE  DESIRED STATE CURRENT STATE ERROR PORTS

z661rc7h8rrn  test-nginx-nfs.1  nginx:latest  node  Running  Running 10 minutes ago

j2b9clk37kuc  test-nginx-nfs.2  nginx:latest  node  Running  Running 10 minutes ago

rawt8mtsstwd  test-nginx-nfs.3  nginx:latest  node  Running  Running 30 seconds ago

nqduca4andz0  \_ test-nginx-nfs.3 nginx:latest master Shutdown Shutdown 32 seconds ago

Master上的副本test-nginx-nfs.3已经被Shut down了,为了达到3个副本数的目标,在Node上添加了新的副本test-nginx-nfs.3

原生Kuberbetes云平台部署

部署架构

Kubernetes(简称K8S)是开源的容器集群管理系统,可以实现容器集群的自动化部署、自动扩缩容、维护等功能。它既是一款容器编排工具,也是全新的基于容器技术的分布式架构领先方案。在Docker技术的基础上,为容器化的应用提供部署运行、资源调度、服务发现和动态伸缩等功能,提高了大规模容器集群管理的便捷性

节点规划

准备两台虚拟机,一台master节点,一台node节点,所有节点安装CentOS_7.2.1511系统,配置网卡和主机名

基础环境配置

配置YUM源(两个节点)

将提供的压缩包K8S.tar.gz上传至/root目录并解压

# tar -zxvf K8S.tar.gz

配置本地YUM源。

# cat /etc/yum.repod.s/local.repo

[kubernetes]

name=kubernetes

baseurl=file:///root/Kubernetes

gpgcheck=0

enabled=1

升级系统内核(两个节点)

# yum upgrade -y

配置主机映射(两个节点)

修改/etc/hosts文件

# vi /etc/hosts

127.0.0.1   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4

::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6

192.168.7.10master

192.168.7.20 node

配置防火墙(两个节点)

配置防火墙及SELinux。

# systemctl stop firewalld && systemctl disable firewalld

# iptables -F

# iptables -X

# iptables -Z

# /usr/sbin/iptables-save

# sed -i 's/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config

# reboot

关闭swap(两个节点)

# swapoff -a

# sed -i "s/\/dev\/mapper\/centos-swap/\#\/dev\/mapper\/centos-swap/g" /etc/fstab

配置时间同步

安装服务(两个节点)

安装chrony服务

# yum install -y chrony

master节点

修改/etc/chrony.conf文件,注释默认NTP服务器,指定上游公共NTP服务器,并允许其他节点同步时间

# sed -i 's/^server/#&/' /etc/chrony.conf

# vi /etc/chrony.conf

local stratum 10

server master iburst

allow all

重启chronyd服务并设为开机启动,开启网络时间同步功能

# systemctl enable chronyd && systemctl restart chronyd

# timedatectl set-ntp true

node节点

修改/etc/chrony.conf文件,指定内网Master节点为上游NTP服务器,重启服务并设为开机启动

# sed -i 's/^server/#&/' /etc/chrony.conf

# echo server 192.168.7.10 iburst >> /etc/chrony.conf 

# systemctl enable chronyd && systemctl restart chronyd

执行命令(两个节点)

执行chronyc sources命令,查询结果中如果存在以“^*”开头的行,即说明已经同步成功

# chronyc sources

210 Number of sources = 1

MS Name/IP address            Stratum Poll Reach LastRx Last sample

==================================================================

^* master                       10   6    77    7   +13ns[-2644ns] +/-   13us

配置路由转发(两个节点)

# vi /etc/sysctl.d/K8S.conf

net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1

net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1

net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1

# modprobe br_netfilter

# sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.d/K8S.conf

net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1

net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1

net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1

配置IPVS(两个节点)

# vi /etc/sysconfig/modules/ipvs.modules

#!/bin/bash

modprobe -- ip_vs

modprobe -- ip_vs_rr

modprobe -- ip_vs_wrr

modprobe -- ip_vs_sh

modprobe -- nf_conntrack_ipv4

# chmod 755 /etc/sysconfig/modules/ipvs.modules

# bash /etc/sysconfig/modules/ipvs.modules && lsmod | grep -e ip_vs -e nf_conntrack_ipv4

查看是否已经正确加载所需的内核模块

 

# lsmod | grep -e ip_vs -e nf_conntrack_ipv4

nf_conntrack_ipv4      15053  0

nf_defrag_ipv4         12729  1 nf_conntrack_ipv4

ip_vs_sh              12688  0

ip_vs_wrr             12697  0

ip_vs_rr               12600  0

ip_vs                 145497  6 ip_vs_rr,ip_vs_sh,ip_vs_wrr

nf_conntrack           139224  2 ip_vs,nf_conntrack_ipv4

libcrc32c              12644  3 xfs,ip_vs,nf_conntrack

安装ipset软件包

# yum install -y ipset ipvsadm

安装docker(两个节点)

Docker,启动Docker引擎并设置开机自启

# yum install -y yum-utils device-mapper-persistent-data lvm2

# yum install docker-ce-18.09.6 docker-ce-cli-18.09.6 containerd.io -y

# mkdir -p /etc/docker

# vi /etc/docker/daemon.json

{

  "exec-opts": ["native.cgroupdriver=systemd"]

}

# systemctl daemon-reload

# systemctl restart docker

# systemctl enable docker

# docker info |grep Cgroup

 Cgroup Driver: system

安装Kubernetes集群

安装工具(两个节点)

Kubelet负责与其他节点集群通信,并进行本节点Pod和容器生命周期的管理。Kubeadm是Kubernetes的自动化部署工具,降低了部署难度,提高效率。Kubectl是Kubernetes集群命令行管理工具

安装Kubernetes工具并启动Kubelet

# yum install -y kubelet-1.14.1 kubeadm-1.14.1 kubectl-1.14.1

# systemctl enable kubelet && systemctl start kubelet

## 此时启动不成功正常,后面初始化的时候会变成功

 

初始化集群(master节点)

# ./kubernetes_base.sh

# kubeadm init --apiserver-advertise-address 192.168.7.10 --kubernetes-version="v1.14.1" --pod-network-cidr=10.16.0.0/16 --image-repository=registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers

[init] Using Kubernetes version: v1.14.1

[preflight] Running pre-flight checks

[preflight] Pulling images required for setting up a Kubernetes cluster

[preflight] This might take a minute or two, depending on the speed of your internet connection

[preflight] You can also perform this action in beforehand using 'kubeadm config images pull'

[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env"

[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"

[kubelet-start] Activating the kubelet service

[certs] Using certificateDir folder "/etc/kubernetes/pki"

[certs] Generating "ca" certificate and key

[certs] Generating "apiserver" certificate and key

[certs] apiserver serving cert is signed for DNS names [master kubernetes kubernetes.default kubernetes.default.svc kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local] and IPs [10.96.0.1 10.18.4.33]

[certs] Generating "apiserver-kubelet-client" certificate and key

[certs] Generating "front-proxy-ca" certificate and key

[certs] Generating "front-proxy-client" certificate and key

[certs] Generating "etcd/ca" certificate and key

[certs] Generating "etcd/healthcheck-client" certificate and key

[certs] Generating "apiserver-etcd-client" certificate and key

[certs] Generating "etcd/server" certificate and key

[certs] etcd/server serving cert is signed for DNS names [master localhost] and IPs [10.18.4.33 127.0.0.1 ::1]

[certs] Generating "etcd/peer" certificate and key

[certs] etcd/peer serving cert is signed for DNS names [master localhost] and IPs [10.18.4.33 127.0.0.1 ::1]

[certs] Generating "sa" key and public key

[kubeconfig] Using kubeconfig folder "/etc/kubernetes"

[kubeconfig] Writing "admin.conf" kubeconfig file

[kubeconfig] Writing "kubelet.conf" kubeconfig file

[kubeconfig] Writing "controller-manager.conf" kubeconfig file

[kubeconfig] Writing "scheduler.conf" kubeconfig file

[control-plane] Using manifest folder "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"

[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-apiserver"

[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-controller-manager"

[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-scheduler"

[etcd] Creating static Pod manifest for local etcd in "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"

[wait-control-plane] Waiting for the kubelet to boot up the control plane as static Pods from directory "/etc/kubernetes/manifests". This can take up to 4m0s

[apiclient] All control plane components are healthy after 25.502670 seconds

[upload-config] storing the configuration used in ConfigMap "kubeadm-config" in the "kube-system" Namespace

[kubelet] Creating a ConfigMap "kubelet-config-1.14" in namespace kube-system with the configuration for the kubelets in the cluster

[upload-certs] Skipping phase. Please see --experimental-upload-certs

[mark-control-plane] Marking the node master as control-plane by adding the label "node-role.kubernetes.io/master=''"

[mark-control-plane] Marking the node master as control-plane by adding the taints [node-role.kubernetes.io/master:NoSchedule]

[bootstrap-token] Using token: i9k9ou.ujf3blolfnet221b

[bootstrap-token] Configuring bootstrap tokens, cluster-info ConfigMap, RBAC Roles

[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to post CSRs in order for nodes to get long term certificate credentials

[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow the csrapprover controller automatically approve CSRs from a Node Bootstrap Token

[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow certificate rotation for all node client certificates in the cluster

[bootstrap-token] creating the "cluster-info" ConfigMap in the "kube-public" namespace

[addons] Applied essential addon: CoreDNS

[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

 

Your Kubernetes control-plane has initialized successfully!

 

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

 

  mkdir -p $HOME/.kube

  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config

  sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

 

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.

Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:

  https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

 

Then you can join any number of worker nodes by running the following on each as root:

 

kubeadm join 192.168.7.10:6443 --token i9k9ou.ujf3blolfnet221b \

    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:a0402e0899cf798b72adfe9d29ae2e9c20d5c62e06a6cc6e46c93371436919dc

初始化操作主要经历了下面15个步骤,每个阶段均输出均使用[步骤名称]作为开头:

[init]:指定版本进行初始化操作。

[preflight]:初始化前的检查和下载所需要的Docker镜像文件。

[kubelet-start]:生成Kubelet的配置文件/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml,没有这个文件Kubelet无法启动,所以初始化之前的Kubelet实际上启动失败。

[certificates]:生成Kubernetes使用的证书,存放在/etc/kubernetes/pki目录中。

[kubeconfig]:生成KubeConfig文件,存放在/etc/kubernetes目录中,组件之间通信需要使用对应文件。

[control-plane]:使用/etc/kubernetes/manifest目录下的YAML文件,安装Master组件。

[etcd]:使用/etc/kubernetes/manifest/etcd.yaml安装Etcd服务。

[wait-control-plane]:等待control-plan部署的Master组件启动。

[apiclient]:检查Master组件服务状态。

[uploadconfig]:更新配置。

11[kubelet]:使用configMap配置Kubelet。

12[patchnode]:更新CNI信息到Node上,通过注释的方式记录。

13[mark-control-plane]:为当前节点打标签,打了角色Master和不可调度标签,这样默认就不会使用Master节点来运行Pod。

14[bootstrap-token]:生成的Token需要记录下来,后面使用kubeadm join命令往集群中添加节点时会用到。

15[addons]:安装附加组件CoreDNS和kube-proxy。

输出结果中的最后一行用于其它节点加入集群

Kubectl默认会在执行的用户home目录下面的.kube目录中寻找config文件,配置kubectl工具

# mkdir -p $HOME/.kube

 

# sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config

# sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

检查集群状态

# kubectl get cs

NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE             ERROR

scheduler               Healthy     ok                 

controller-manager       Healthy      ok                 

etcd-0                  Healthy     {"health":"true"}

配置网络(master节点)

部署flannel网络

# kubectl apply -f yaml/kube-flannel.yml

# kubectl get pods -n kube-system

NAME                         READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE

coredns-8686dcc4fd-v88br         0/1        Running    0            4m42s

coredns-8686dcc4fd-xf28r         0/1        Running    0            4m42s

etcd-master                     1/1        Running    0            3m51s

kube-apiserver-master             1/1        Running    0            3m46s

kube-controller-manager-master     1/1        Running    0            3m48s

kube-flannel-ds-amd64-6hf4w      1/1        Running    0            24s

kube-proxy-r7njz                 1/1        Running    0            4m42s

kube-scheduler-master             1/1        Running    0            3m37s

加入集群

在master节点执行

# ./kubernetes_base.sh

在node节点使用kubeadm join命令将Node节点加入集群

# kubeadm join 192.168.7.10:6443 --token qf4lef.d83xqvv00l1zces9 --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash

sha256:ec7c7db41a13958891222b2605065564999d124b43c8b02a3b32a6b2ca1a1c6c

[preflight] Running pre-flight checks

[preflight] Reading configuration from the cluster...

[preflight] FYI: You can look at this config file with 'kubectl -n kube-system get cm kubeadm-config -oyaml'

[kubelet-start] Downloading configuration for the kubelet from the "kubelet-config-1.14" ConfigMap in the kube-system namespace

[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"

[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env"

[kubelet-start] Activating the kubelet service

[kubelet-start] Waiting for the kubelet to perform the TLS Bootstrap...

 

This node has joined the cluster:

* Certificate signing request was sent to apiserver and a response was received.

* The Kubelet was informed of the new secure connection details.

 

Run 'kubectl get nodes' on the control-plane to see this node join the cluster.

在master节点检查各节点状态

# kubectl get nodes

NAME     STATUS   ROLES    AGE     VERSION

master      Ready     master     4m53s    v1.14.1

node       Ready     <none>     13s      v1.14.1

安装Dashboard(master节点)

安装Dashboard

# kubectl create -f yaml/kubernetes-dashboard.yaml

创建管理员

 

# kubectl create -f yaml/dashboard-adminuser.yaml

serviceaccount/kubernetes-dashboard-admin created

clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.K8S.io/kubernetes-dashboard-admin created

检查所有Pod状态

# kubectl get pods -n kube-system

NAME                              READY   STATUS  RESTARTS   AGE

coredns-8686dcc4fd-8jqzh              1/1        Running   0           11m

coredns-8686dcc4fd-dkbhw             1/1        Running   0           11m

etcd-master                          1/1        Running   0           11m

kube-apiserver-master                  1/1        Running   0           11m

kube-controller-manager-master          1/1        Running   0           11m

kube-flannel-ds-amd64-49ssg            1/1        Running   0           7m56s

kube-flannel-ds-amd64-rt5j8             1/1        Running   0           7m56s

kube-proxy-frz2q                      1/1        Running   0           11m

kube-proxy-xzq4t                      1/1        Running   0           11m

kube-scheduler-master                  1/1        Running   0            11m

kubernetes-dashboard-5f7b999d65-djgxj    1/1        Running   0           11m

查看端口号

# kubectl get svc -n kube-system

NAME              TYPE    CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE

kube-dns            ClusterIP  10.96.0.10    <none>  53/UDP,53/TCP,9153/TCP 15m

kubernetes-dashboard  NodePort  10.102.195.101 <none>      443:30000/TCP  4m43s

浏览器中输入地址(https://192.168.7.10:30000),访问Kubernetes Dashboard

 

 

单击“接受风险并继续”按钮,即可进入Kubernetes Dasboard认证界面

获取访问Dashboard的认证令牌

 

# kubectl -n kube-system describe secret $(kubectl -n kube-system get secret | grep kubernetes-dashboard-admin-token | awk '{print $1}')

Name:         kubernetes-dashboard-admin-token-j5dvd

Namespace:    kube-system

Labels:       <none>

Annotations:  kubernetes.io/service-account.name: kubernetes-dashboard-admin

              kubernetes.io/service-account.uid: 1671a1e1-cbb9-11e9-8009-ac1f6b169b00

 

Type:  kubernetes.io/service-account-token

 

Data

====

ca.crt:     1025 bytes

namespace:  11 bytes

token:      eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IiJ9.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.u6ZaVO-WR632jpFimnXTk5O376IrZCCReVnu2Brd8QqsM7qgZNTHD191Zdem46ummglbnDF9Mz4wQBaCUeMgG0DqCAh1qhwQfV6gVLVFDjHZ2tu5yn0bSmm83nttgwMlOoFeMLUKUBkNJLttz7-aDhydrbJtYU94iG75XmrOwcVglaW1qpxMtl6UMj4-bzdMLeOCGRQBSpGXmms4CP3LkRKXCknHhpv-pqzynZu1dzNKCuZIo_vv-kO7bpVvi5J8nTdGkGTq3FqG6oaQIO-BPM6lMWFeLEUkwe-EOVcg464L1i6HVsooCESNfTBHjjLXZ0WxXeOOslyoZE7pFzA0qg

将获取到的令牌输入浏览器,认证后即可进入Kubernetes控制台

配置kuboard(master节点)

Kuboard是一款免费的Kubernetes图形化管理工具,其力图帮助用户快速在Kubernetes上落地微服务

 

# kubectl create -f yaml/kuboard.yaml

deployment.apps/kuboard created

service/kuboard created

serviceaccount/kuboard-user created

clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.K8S.io/kuboard-user created

serviceaccount/kuboard-viewer created

clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.K8S.io/kuboard-viewer created

clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.K8S.io/kuboard-viewer-node created

clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.K8S.io/kuboard-viewer-pvp created

ingress.extensions/kuboard created

在浏览器中输入地址http://192.168.7.10:31000,即可进入Kuboard的认证界面

Token文本框中输入令牌后可进入Kuboard控制台

 

配置Kubernetes集群 

开启IPVS(master节点)

IPVS是基于TCP四层(IP+端口)的负载均衡软件

IPVS会从TCPSYNC包开始为一个TCP连接所有的数据包,建立状态跟踪机制,保证一个TCP连接中所有的数据包能到同一个后端

根据处理请求和响应数据包的模式的不同,IPVS具有如下4种工作模式:

NAT模式

DR(Direct Routing)模式

TUN(IP Tunneling)模式

FULLNAT模式

而根据响应数据包返回路径的不同,可以分为如下2种模式:

①双臂模式:请求、转发和返回在同一路径上,client和IPVS director、IPVS director和后端real server都是由请求和返回2个路径连接。

②三角模式:请求、转发和返回3个路径连接client、IPVS director和后端real server成为一个三角形。

修改ConfigMap的kube-system/kube-proxy中的config.conf文件,修改为mode: "ipvs"

 

# kubectl edit cm kube-proxy -n kube-system

    ipvs:

      excludeCIDRs: null

      minSyncPeriod: 0s

      scheduler: ""

      syncPeriod: 30s

    kind: KubeProxyConfiguration

    metricsBindAddress: 127.0.0.1:10249

    mode: "ipvs"    //修改此处

    nodePortAddresses: null

    oomScoreAdj: -999

    portRange: ""

    resourceContainer: /kube-proxy

    udpIdleTimeout: 250ms

重启kube-proxy(master节点)

# kubectl get pod -n kube-system | grep kube-proxy | awk '{system("kubectl delete pod "$1" -n kube-system")}'

pod "kube-proxy-bd68w" deleted

pod "kube-proxy-qq54f" deleted

pod "kube-proxy-z9rp4" deleted

查看日志

# kubectl logs kube-proxy-9zv5x -n kube-system

I1004 07:11:17.538141       1 server_others.go:177] Using ipvs Proxier. #正在使用ipvs

W1004 07:11:17.538589       1 proxier.go:381] IPVS scheduler not specified, use rr by default

I1004 07:11:17.540108       1 server.go:555] Version: v1.14.1

I1004 07:11:17.555484       1 conntrack.go:52] Setting nf_conntrack_max to 524288

I1004 07:11:17.555827       1 config.go:102] Starting endpoints config controller

I1004 07:11:17.555899       1 controller_utils.go:1027] Waiting for caches to sync for endpoints config controller

I1004 07:11:17.555927       1 config.go:202] Starting service config controller

I1004 07:11:17.555965       1 controller_utils.go:1027] Waiting for caches to sync for service config controller

I1004 07:11:17.656090       1 controller_utils.go:1034] Caches are synced for service config controller

I1004 07:11:17.656091       1 controller_utils.go:1034] Caches are synced for endpoints config controller

日志中打印出了“Using ipvs Proxier”字段,说明IPVS模式已经开启

测试IPVS(master节点)

# ipvsadm -Ln

IP Virtual Server version 1.2.1 (size=4096)

Prot LocalAddress:Port Scheduler Flags

  -> RemoteAddress:Port           Forward Weight ActiveConn InActConn

TCP  172.17.0.1:30099 rr

TCP  172.17.0.1:30188 rr

TCP  172.17.0.1:30301 rr

TCP  172.17.0.1:31000 rr

调度(master节点)

查看Taints字段默认配置

# kubectl describe node master

……

CreationTimestamp:  Fri, 04 Oct 2020 06:02:45 +0000

Taints:             node-role.kubernetes.io/master:NoSchedule   //状态为NoSchedule

Unschedulable:      false

……

希望将K8S-master也当作Node节点使用,可以执行如下命令

# kubectl taint node master node-role.kubernetes.io/master-

node/master untainted

# kubectl describe node master

……

CreationTimestamp:  Fri, 04 Oct 2020 06:02:45 +0000

Taints:             <none>    //状态已经改变

Unschedulable:      false

……

 

 

 


原文链接:https://www.cnblogs.com/tui463/p/12976198.html
如有疑问请与原作者联系

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