SpringCloud微服务之Ribbon负载均衡(一)

2020-03-17 16:07:50来源:博客园 阅读 ()

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SpringCloud微服务之Ribbon负载均衡(一)

什么是微服务?什么是SpringCloud?

 微服务是一种架构的模式,它提倡将一个应用程序划分成很多个微小的服务,服务与服务之间相互协调、相互配合。每个服务运行都是一个独立的进程,服务与服务之间采用轻量级的通讯机制相互沟通。简单的来说就是将一个庞大的复杂的单体应用进行划分成n多个微小的服务(一个服务负责一个业务),各个微服务都被独立的部署。

 微服务与集群的区别是,微服务的每一个部署的服务都是不相同的,而集群部署的每一个服务都是相同的。

 Spring Cloud是一个微服务框架,相比Dubbo等RPC框架,Spring Cloud提供的全套的分布式系统解决方案。它是在SpringBoot的基础上构建的。SpringCloud的五大神兽分别是Eureka、Ribbon、Feign、Hystrix、Zuul。

环境搭建

版本说明

springboot:2.0.3

springcloud:Finchley

创建一个父工程(maven项目)

 

 选择maven,点击next

 

 然后点击完成

 修改父工程pom.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <groupId>com.lzh</groupId>
    <artifactId>my-springcloud-01</artifactId>
    <packaging>pom</packaging>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>


    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <maven.compiler.source>1.8</maven.compiler.source>
        <maven.compiler.target>1.8</maven.compiler.target>
        <junit.version>4.12</junit.version>
        <log4j.version>1.2.17</log4j.version>
        <lombok.version>1.16.18</lombok.version>
    </properties>

    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>Finchley.RELEASE</version>
                <!--<version>Dalston.SR1</version>-->
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>2.0.3.RELEASE</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>mysql</groupId>
                <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
                <version>5.0.4</version>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
                <artifactId>druid</artifactId>
                <version>1.0.31</version>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.mybatis.spring.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>mybatis-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
                <version>1.3.0</version>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>ch.qos.logback</groupId>
                <artifactId>logback-core</artifactId>
                <version>1.2.3</version>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>junit</groupId>
                <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
                <version>${junit.version}</version>
                <scope>test</scope>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>log4j</groupId>
                <artifactId>log4j</artifactId>
                <version>${log4j.version}</version>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>

    <build>
        <finalName>microservicecloud</finalName>
        <resources>
            <resource>
                <directory>src/main/resources</directory>
                <filtering>true</filtering>
            </resource>
        </resources>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-resources-plugin</artifactId>
                <configuration>
                    <delimiters>
                        <delimit>$</delimit>
                    </delimiters>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>


</project>

 创建子工程(maven项目)

工程名称:microservice-consumer-80

pom.xml文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>my-springcloud-01</artifactId>
        <groupId>com.lzh</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>microservice-consumer-80</artifactId>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.lzh</groupId>
            <artifactId>microservice-api</artifactId>
            <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-eureka-client</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <!-- 整合ribbon -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-ribbon</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>

</project>

 

编码实现

在主启动类上加上@EnableDiscoveryClient注解

创建一个配置文件ConfigBean.java,new一个RestTemplate远程调用模板,加入@LoadBalanced注解,开启负载均衡

import org.springframework.cloud.client.loadbalancer.LoadBalanced;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate;

/**
 * @author lzh
 * create 2019-11-05-9:58
 */
@Configuration
public class ConfigBean {

    @Bean
    //加入负载均衡
    //Spring Cloud Ribbon是基于Netflix Ribbon实现的一套客户端    负载均衡的工具
    @LoadBalanced
    public RestTemplate getRestTemplate(){
        return new RestTemplate();
    }

}

在服务层DeptServiceImpl.java类中用RestTemplate模板工具调用,这里使用服务名称调用,如果服务名称相同,则会进行顺序轮询调用 

import com.lzh.cloud.model.Dept;
import com.lzh.cloud.service.DeptService;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;
import org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate;

import java.util.List;

/**
 * @author lzh
 * create 2019-11-05-10:27
 */
@Service
public class DeptServiceImpl implements DeptService {


    /**
     * 使用restTemplate访问restful接口非常的简单粗暴无脑。
     * (url, requestMap, ResponseBean.class)这三个参数分别代表
     * REST请求地址、请求参数、HTTP响应转换被转换成的对象类型。
     */
    @Autowired
    private RestTemplate restTemplate;

    //private static final String REST_URL_PREFIX = "http://localhost:8001";
    private static final String REST_URL_PREFIX = "http://MICROSERVICECLOUD-DEPT";

    @Override
    public boolean add(Dept dept) {
        return restTemplate.postForObject(REST_URL_PREFIX + "/dept/add", dept, Boolean.class);
    }

    @Override
    public Dept get(Long id) {
        return restTemplate.getForObject(REST_URL_PREFIX + "/dept/get/" + id, Dept.class);
    }

    @Override
    public List<Dept> list() {
        return restTemplate.getForObject(REST_URL_PREFIX + "/dept/list/", List.class);
    }

    @Override
    public Object discovery() {
        return restTemplate.getForObject(REST_URL_PREFIX + "/dept/discovery", Object.class);
    }
}

自定义轮询规则

在主启动类的前一个包创建一个配置MySelRule类,注意不要跟主启动类同包或者在主启动类的子包中创建

import com.netflix.loadbalancer.IRule;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;

/**
 * @author lzh
 * create 2019-05-19-17:10
 */

@Configuration
public class MySelfRule {

    @Bean
    public IRule myRule(){
        //return new RandomRule(); //Ribbon默认是轮询,我自定义为随机
        //return new RoundRobinRule(); //Ribbon默认是轮询,我自定义为随机

        return new RandomRule_LZH(); // 我自定义为每台机器5次
    }

}

 参照源码,自定义轮询算法RandomRule_LZH.java 

import com.netflix.client.config.IClientConfig;
import com.netflix.loadbalancer.AbstractLoadBalancerRule;
import com.netflix.loadbalancer.ILoadBalancer;
import com.netflix.loadbalancer.Server;

import java.util.List;

public class RandomRule_LZH extends AbstractLoadBalancerRule {

    // total = 0 // 当total==5以后,我们指针才能往下走,
    // index = 0 // 当前对外提供服务的服务器地址,
    // total需要重新置为零,但是已经达到过一个5次,我们的index = 1
    // 分析:我们5次,但是微服务只有8001 8002 8003 三台,OK?
    //


    private int total = 0;            // 总共被调用的次数,目前要求每台被调用5次
    private int currentIndex = 0;    // 当前提供服务的机器号

    public Server choose(ILoadBalancer lb, Object key) {
        if (lb == null) {
            return null;
        }
        Server server = null;

        while (server == null) {
            if (Thread.interrupted()) {
                return null;
            }
            List<Server> upList = lb.getReachableServers();
            List<Server> allList = lb.getAllServers();

            int serverCount = allList.size();
            if (serverCount == 0) {
                /*
                 * No servers. End regardless of pass, because subsequent passes only get more
                 * restrictive.
                 */
                return null;
            }

//            int index = rand.nextInt(serverCount);// java.util.Random().nextInt(3);
//            server = upList.get(index);


//            private int total = 0;             // 总共被调用的次数,目前要求每台被调用5次
//            private int currentIndex = 0;    // 当前提供服务的机器号
            if (total < 5) {
                server = upList.get(currentIndex);
                total++;
            } else {
                total = 0;
                currentIndex++;
                if (currentIndex >= upList.size()) {
                    currentIndex = 0;
                }
            }


            if (server == null) {
                /*
                 * The only time this should happen is if the server list were somehow trimmed.
                 * This is a transient condition. Retry after yielding.
                 */
                Thread.yield();
                continue;
            }

            if (server.isAlive()) {
                return (server);
            }

            // Shouldn't actually happen.. but must be transient or a bug.
            server = null;
            Thread.yield();
        }

        return server;

    }

    @Override
    public Server choose(Object key) {
        return choose(getLoadBalancer(), key);
    }

    @Override
    public void initWithNiwsConfig(IClientConfig clientConfig) {
        // TODO Auto-generated method stub

    }

}

最后不要忘了在主启动类加上注解,使用自定义轮询算法configuration = MySelfRule.class

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.cloud.client.discovery.EnableDiscoveryClient;
import org.springframework.cloud.netflix.eureka.EnableEurekaClient;


/**
 * @author lzh
 * create 2019-11-04-22:26
 */
@SpringBootApplication
@EnableEurekaClient
//自定义负载均衡规则
//在启动该为服务的时候就能去加载我们的自定义Ribbon配置类,从而使配置生效
//configuration = MySelfRule.class  把MySelfRule配置类加载进容器
@RibbonClient(name = "MICROSERVICECLOUD-DEPT",configuration = MySelfRule.class)
@EnableDiscoveryClient
public class MyConsumerApplication_80 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(MyConsumerApplication_80.class);
    }
}

代码

 github:https://github.com/LZHDonald/my-springcloud-01/tree/master/microservice-consumer-80


原文链接:https://www.cnblogs.com/lzhdonald/p/11798912.html
如有疑问请与原作者联系

标签:系统IE定义对象timname

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